What is a Comp or a Profile?

These terms can be confusing so hoping to change that for my readers. These terms will be used in human medicine as well.  Both comp and profile are shorter versions of comprehensive metabolic panels that offer an inside look at your body’s chemical balance and metabolism. The values are screening numbers and can be compared from year to year to monitor disease processes. These tests are extremely important prior to elective procedures to assess anesthetic risk. Profiles are used prior to starting long term medications and at times of illness. There are different comp panels that include various lab tests. Our standard panel has 14 different markers and we can add 3 additional tests if warranted. I want to list each of these and give a description of how they are used so you can learn what these mean if your furry friend ever needs a comp or profile.

TPTotal Proteinsum of all proteins in the blood – main two types are albumin and globulins
ALBalbuminmost common protein and keeps fluids from leaking out of the blood and can carry other substances throughout the body
GLOBglobulinthese proteins are formed by the immune system and liver
GLOB + ALB = TPtherefore we can do A/G ratios that can give insight to other health concerns
ALPAlkaline Phosphatasefound in bone and liver so if elevated this is not a diagnosis — other tests will need to be performed — medications can elevate this enzyme also
ALTAlanine Transaminaseenzyme exclusively in the liver cells — when elevated we know we need to focus on the liver.
TBilTotal Bilirubinmeasure of bilibruin in your blood — animals can have yellow coloring of skin, and the whites of the eyes — urine will look dark like coffee grounds — jaundice if elevated and above normal — concern for liver if changes are noted
AMYAmylasethis enzyme is made in the pancreas – with disease or injury to pancreas we see increases of this enzyme in the blood
BUNBlood Urea Nitrogena measurement of urea in your blood — important information about kidney function — if low can be indicative of lack of protein in your diet or liver concerns
CREcreatininehigh levels correlate with lack of normal kidney function — kidney’s filter CRE from your blood and excretes in urine — if kidneys are not working CRE will increase in blood
GLUGlucoseextremely high levels can indicate diabetes — can be mildly elevated if an animal is stressed — low levels can lead to comas and disorientation — in puppies and kittens if their glucose is low — people often assume they are dead because they are unresponsive
Cacalciumdiet can impact calcium levels — high levels can also be driven by cancer and kidney disease — low calcium levels can be seen with low albumin levels caused by nutrition — liver or kidney disease, infections, or other long term illnesses
Phosphosphoruslow levels are often caused by malnutrition over long periods of time — this may be the diet or the lack of sufficient food intake — elevated levels can appear with kidney disease in cats and dogs — the kidneys regulate the phosphorus levels
Na+sodiumelectrolytes such as Na+ are necessary for heart and brain function, fluid balance, to deliver oxygen — it regulates blood pressure, blood volume, and transmission of nerve impulses — changes in Na+ also impact Cl- (chloride levels) another electrolyte
K+potassiumK+ is an electrolyte that is needed to control brain and heart activity along with nerve impulses — it is present in the cells and blood of a pet’s body — low K+ levels are often seen in advanced kidney disease — high K+ levels are seen in cases of urinary tract rupture, adrenal gland disorder, heart arrythmias, trauma, and many other conditions

Add on tests we can consider if needed are as follows:

Cholcholesterolthere are breeds of dogs that may have a genetic disposition to high cholesterol levels (schnauzers, Shetland sheepdog, collies) — high chol could indicate diabetes cushings, or low thyroid levels — low levels can indicate loss through the digestive tract with intestinal diseases or cancer
T-4thyroidelevated levels in pets often indicates cancer of the thyroid gland — it is most common in older cats and rare in dogs — low thyroid levels are rare in cats and more common in dogs — dogs treated for low thyroid conditions usually owners see an increase in their energy level, improved skin and hair, and weight loss
SDMAsymmetric dimethylargininethis test detects kidney disease at an early stage then the creatine level can

These tests can be run daily. Results are available the same day. This allows us to start therapy and treatment as quickly as possible. If you ever have concerns about your pet, please do not hesitate to contact us. The sooner a diagnosis is made the better the outcome for our pets.

What’s a CBC?

Many times our patients are needing us to check blood work. The CBC is an important diagnostic test used to evaluate the blood more closely. I wanted to talk this month about a machine that allows us to run CBC laboratory tests right in the clinic and what those values mean. This photo shows the machine we use to run a Complete Blood Count (CBC). This is a standard test used prior to surgical procedures, during wellness checks, and when we have concerns for illness. The machine takes a sample of blood and sorts out the cells into three different components. We have the White Blood Cell (WBC) count, the Red Blood Cell (RBC), and the Platelet (PLT) Count. All three share different information about components of the blood. 

WBC are made up of 5 different cellular structures. Each of these cell types when counted by this machine make up the WBC. The neutrophils (51-72%) usually are the largest percentage of WBC cells, followed by the lymphocytes (8-35%), monocytes (1-9%), eosinophils 0-9%), and basophils (0-2%). When these numbers are elevated it will raise the WBC count. We then look for the cell causing the elevation. If the neutrophils are up we know that there is an active infection present somewhere in the body. If the eosinophils are elevated we look for evidence of inflammation caused by allergies or parasites. Sometimes these levels can be lower than normal and we would look for viral infections or concerns with the bone marrow itself.  Lymphocytes help develop antibodies to protect against future attacks by the same organism.

RBC are made up of different components that all help our body carry oxygen throughout the body. High RBC counts can most commonly indicate dehydration. Anemia is when our RBC is low. We can have low counts related to blood loss from active bleeding, destruction of red blood cells from diseases, bone marrow or other diseases that prevent production of red blood cells.  Hemoglobin (HGB) binds and releases the oxygen to carry it to all our cells. The HGB will be directly affected by the red blood cell count at times of dehydration or anemia.  Hematocrit (HCT) and Pack Cell Volume (PCV) mean the same thing. This is the percentage of red blood cells circulating in the blood. If we spin the blood the red blood cells will settle to the bottom and the serum will be the liquid at the top. This percentage can give us information to help figure out what disease process may be causing an increase or a decrease in the RBC.  MCV, MCH, and MCHC are also values used within the RBC. They each play a part in the diagnosis of anemia or iron levels within the body.

Platelets (PLT) are responsible for helping to clot our blood. When we get a cut or a scratch the platelets become sticky and gather in large numbers to seal the leak in our blood vessel. This is extremely important to know prior to a surgical procedure. If a pet has low platelets that could affect the amount of bleeding at the time of surgery. 

There are conditions that have an effect on each of these values and even some that can cause  changes in all three. We take into consideration this CBC each and every time we do surgeries or are faced with health concerns of our patients. We ask if you are wanting to do a pre- surgical blood screen prior to anesthesia procedures or if your pet has presented with an illness that needs laboratory work to help diagnose what is ailing them. We also require doing this test annually if your pet is on long term medications. The CBC is one of those tests that we run right in our lab and can have results quickly. 

Next time you bring your pet into the clinic you will know why the CBC is an important piece of information that can help us get your furry friends back home quickly and safely. Happy Spring and hope the April showers are bringing in your May flowers!

Kid Care

After a 5 month gestation, moms may give birth to one, two (most common) or three kids (very rarely 4). Large babies, many babies and the ensuing long labor can take a toll on mom (the doe). Sometimes she may be too weak to stand and will need post-partum help recovering — a whole other article. Does may select only one newborn and kick away others — you must be very vigilant that mom licks dry each baby and stands still to let them nurse. If she ostracizes one or more babies for very long, it is really tough to get her to accept them. You either have to foster them onto another doe that is more accepting, or raise a bottle baby. This may be the most critical decision you face in the first 48 hours of life.

After that, common husbandry — warmth, dry bedding, no drafts, no predators, etc. are key for does and babies to be comfortable and thrive.

In the first three days any diarrhea can be fatal if prolonged or untreated. Clostridium and E.coli are bad news day one to three. Coccidia from muddy udders can cause bloody diarrhea as early as day 5 to 7. Talk to a veterinarian or bring a stool sample in to get an accurate diagnosis to treat diarrhea before giving shots, pills or liquid meds.

Respiratory problems also surface early in life. Kids can suffer from aspiration pneumonia during the birth process if placental fluids get into their lungs. Cold or damp weather hampers healthy lungs also. Quick treatment with antibiotics is necessary if you notice snotty noses, coughs, or any labored breathing or lethargy.

budding horn before procedure – red arrow points to it

Once they pass the one week milestone — they usually are on their way to a healthy and happy life. The next issue is disbudding. A wide varying number of opinions exist, and all want to be right. In my experience, I would rather disbud a one or two week old kid when it is very easy and quick healing — than fix a wreck later on. Animals will use horns for defense AND offense: that will never change. We try to domesticate them, but their instinct and equipment still take over. To successfully disbud a 1 to 3 week old kid, I use a hot cautery iron placed over the horn bud for 8 to 10 seconds to cauterize the cornual artery and nerve. The horn then has no nerve or blood supply to grow — and is gone. Pain medication post op is provided. Tetanus antitoxin is a must due to the sensitivity of goats to Clostridium tetani. Disbudding will save many animals from getting caught in fences and strangulating, and many fences will not have to be cut and patched up. Also you are safe to walk into a pen without getting butted or gored by juvenile or adult goats.

Nutrition: moms’ milk is by far the best choice for 2 to 3 months. Second choice is another goat’s milk. Third is a quality GOAT milk replacer that has at least 4.5% fat. Whole milk from cows from the grocery store has reduced fat (down to 2%) and provides only half the fat needed.

Next goat starter pellets with vitamins and free choice GOAT mineral works well at weaning. Most kids will be grazing next to mom before weaning and ready to eat grass at three weeks old. Grass in Iowa has all the needed mineral for goats to survive and thrive.

Watch for anemia — worms are a huge problem in goat herds. The FORMANCHA test determines anemia by degree of color in membranes of the lower eyelid. Soon you can be an expert in finding an anemic animal — before they become weak, lethargic, and anorexic. All dewormers will work — rotating between the benzamidazoles, ivermectins, and moxidectins will eliminate resistance problems. Injectable or oral is a personal choice. It is recommended to have stool samples analyzed for # and type of parasite in a herd. It often amazes me how many parasites can live inside an animal without any outward evidence. Some herds are dewormed monthly, some 3 to 4 times a year, and some do not need any — no one rule fits every farm.

Exercise: Goats are nimble climbers by ancestry — and love as many climbing challenges in a pen as your imagination can build. Asphalt shingles on steep surfaces provide grip and keep hooves wore down. Without wear, goat hooves should be trimmed every three months to prevent curling over and possibly trapping wetness in the sole. Hoof rot can be a big problem in herds without proper hoof care.

Health care: Castration is recommended as soon as a week of age if a kid is healthy and nursing well. Knife castration is very quick and easy, or bands placed above both testicles with a tetanus antitoxin is effective also. Vaccination to prevent overeating (Clostridium C and D) and tetanus is recommended at 3 weeks of age with deworming if necessary. A booster 2 to 4 weeks pater ensure solid protection.

Goats thrive everywhere in Iowa. They are hardy and thrifty and provide a profitable business, as well as a lot of crazy entertainment for the owners. Good luck and have fun!

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